Forex Glossary

Get the grips with forex jargon in your trading journey


  • Abandon

    Abandon literally means rejection (from the French. Abandon). As applied to the sphere of financial operations, abandon can be a waiver of any right or property, withdrawal from a transaction, waiver of using an option until its full expiration date. “Abandon”

  • Accelerator/Decelerator

    The Accelerator/Decelerator technical indicator shows the acceleration or deceleration of the current market driving force.

  • Accumulation/Distribution

    Accumulation/Distribution is an indicator designed to reflect cumulative inflows and outflows of money by comparing closing prices with corresponding highs and lows.

  • ADP Non-Farm Employment Change

    This U.S. report is a measure of non-farm private employment. It was developed in order to help meet the need for timely and accurate estimates of short-term movements in the labor market.
    Alligator – Alligator is an indicator created to identify the trends and their directions.

  • AMEX (American Stock Exchange)

    World Stock Exchange, which grew out of a small company of stock traders in the second largest US stock exchange. Its distinctive feature is that shares of firms that are in the development stage (small and medium business) are traded here. Two major indices are calculated on this exchange: AMEX Major Market Index and AMEX Market Value Index.

  • Analyst

    A financial professional who has expertise in evaluating investments and puts together buy, sell and hold recommendations for clients.

  • Andrew’s Pitchfork

    A channel technique developed by Dr. Alan Andrews that uses three parallel trendlines to show areas of support and resistance. The three parallel lines are created from three consecutive major peaks or troughs.
    A financial professional who has expertise in evaluating investments and puts together buy, sell and hold recommendations for clients.

  • Anti Money Laundering

    (AML) is is a term used in the financial industry to describe a set of procedures, laws and regulations that require financial institutions and other regulated entities to prevent, detect, and report money laundering activities.

  • Arbitrage

    Simultaneous purchase of an undervalued financial asset and sale of its overvalued equivalent in order to make further risk-free profit from the price difference of assets which emerged as a result of temporary market inefficiency.

  • Ascending Triangle

    The Ascending triangle graphical price pattern is a chart pattern of an existing trend continuation, which is usually formed in an uptrend and confirms its further direction.

  • Ask price

    The ask price is the price at which one buys any financial instrument.

  • Ask Rate

    See ask price

  • Asset

    An instrument which has an economic value and may generate income in future.


    The Australian dollar and the US dollar currency pair. In this pair the Australian dollar is the base currency, and the US dollar is the quoted one.

  • Aussie

    Slang term for the Australian dollar.

  • Automated Trading

    Automated trading gives an opportunity to make the trading process absolutely automated.

  • Average Directional Index (ADX)

    Average Directional Index (ADX) is a technical indicator developed by Welles Wilder to determine the strength of a trend and the further price movement by analyzing the dynamics and the differences between the lowest and highest trading prices.

  • Average True Range Indicator (ATR)

    The ATR indicator was developed to measure market volatility.

  • Awesome Oscillator

    Awesome Oscillator (AO) is an indicator which reflects precise changes in the market driving force which helps to identify the strength of a trend including the points of its formation and reversal.


  • Backwardation

    Backwardation is a situation in which the current futures price is lower than the price of the underlying asset. Backwardation is also sometimes called a situation where the futures price with a later expiration date is lower than the futures price with an earlier date.

  • Bailout

    A bailout is a financial term referring to an extraordinary act of lending, or outright giving, capital to an entity (a company, bank, individual, etc.) that is in danger of failure due to bankruptcy or insolvency. A bailout can also be given to a failing entity to allow it to exit gracefully without leading to a contagion.

  • Balance/account balance

    The total financial result of all the completed transactions and operations of the deposit/withdrawal of funds from a trading account.

  • Bank of Canada (BOC)

    The Bank of Canada is the central bank of Canada.

  • Bank of England (BOE)

    The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom.

  • Bank of Japan (BOJ)

    The Bank of Japan is the central bank of Japan.

  • Bar chart

    This type of chart contains four values of an asset price for each time interval: high, low, opening, and closing prices. High and low prices are reflected by a vertical line, while the opening and closing prices – by horizontal lines. The line on the left of the bar is the opening price, while the line on the right of the bar is the closing price.

  • Base currency

    The first currency in a currency pair in the Forex market.

  • Base Interest Rate

    There are interest rates that banks set to determine the key interest rate for different types of lending. Their size depends on the supply and demand for credit resources, market interest rates and other factors. Initially, the base interest rate is set by the central bank of the country; at this rate, all other banks can borrow from the central bank. The base interest rate set by the central bank has a direct impact on the value of said country’s currency. Therefore, tracking changes in this indicator can help the trader in making trades in forex.

  • Basis

    Basis is the difference in price between the futures price and the price of the underlying asset. The basis can be both positive and negative. By the time the contract expires, the basis will be zero, as futures and spot prices will be equal.

  • Basis point

    A Basis point is a unit of measurement which is equal to one hundredth of a percent. When interest rates are calculated it is necessary to remove all ambiguity: in this case the unit becomes the base point. For example, an increase of the base rate from 7% to 7.2% would imply a 20 base point change.

  • Bear Market

    A market, which is characterized by falling prices (quotes).

  • Bearish

    The term “bearish” is used to describe that a person’s, or group’s, outlook on an asset is negative (i.e., that the asset will fall in value).
    For example, Jane is “bearish” on the Swiss Franc, which means she thinks its value will go down in price.

  • Bearish Engulfing Pattern

    The market must be in clearly defined uptrend. The first candle is bullish. The second candle is bearish. The bearish candle engulfs the previous candle’s body. The size of the candle being engulfed doesn’t matter. Ignore the wicks. An even stronger signal occurs when the bearish candle engulfs the bodies of two or three previous candles. Indicates a bearish trend may be beginning.

  • Bearish Rectangle

    The rectangle graphical pattern serves to confirm the direction of the existing trend. The bearish rectangle is formed in a downtrend and indicates high probability for the further decrease in the asset price.

  • Beneficiary

    In the financial sphere, the term “beneficiary” is often used. It means the recipient of the benefit: in monetary or other terms. The beneficiary is a legal entity or an individual making a profit / profit in accordance with debt and other financial documents.

  • Bid Price

    The bid price is the price at which one sells any financial instrument.

  • Bid/Ask Spread

    The difference between the Bid and Ask prices.

  • Big Board

    Big Board is trader slang for the New York stock exchange. The exchange is the largest in the world in terms of the total cost of companies’ shares which from part of the listing. At this exchange the largest amount of stocks in the world are traded and over 3,000 corporations are quoted.

  • Binary Options

    In finance, binary option (also called fixed return option, all or nothing or digital option) is a type of option where the payoff is either some fixed amount of some asset or nothing at all.[1] Binary options have been available since the middle of 2008.

  • Bitcoin

    Bitcoin, created in early 2009, by Satoshi Nakamoto, is a form of digital currency, that you can’t hold it in your hand as you would with a traditional currency. Instead, bitcoin is created and held in digital form and relies on cryptography for security. Bitcoin is a decentralized currency, meaning it is not controlled by a single entity (like a central bank). Nobody controls it.

  • Bitcoin Cash

    Bitcoin Cash is peer-to-peer electronic cash for the internet. It is fully decentralized, with no central bank and requires no trusted third parties to operate.

  • Blue Chip

    A blue chip stock is that of a well-established company which is considered stable and which pays regular dividends. Typically, the term ‘blue chips’ is used to refer to the constituents of the major stock indices. The term derives from the high value of blue casino chips.

  • Bollinger Bands Indicator

    The Bollinger Bands indicator reflects the current market volatility changes, confirms direction, warns about the opportunities of trend continuation or trend end, consolidation periods, increasing volatility for breakouts, as well as indicates the local highs and lows.

  • Break

    Break is used to signify the sharp rise and fall of prices. This is an indicator of monetary imbalances, when sellers are significantly stronger than buyers of a particular financial instrument.

  • Breakeven

    The point at which gains equal to losses.

  • Breakout

    When the market price of an asset moves through a previously strong support or resistance area or level of interest. Typically followed by increased volatility and heavy volume.

  • Broker

    A company or an individual which acts as an intermediary in giving access to markets and organizing trading financial instruments for its clients.

  • Bull

    A trader or an investor who acts with the belief that the market and prices on a certain financial instrument (currency pair, stock, etc.) will rise. Bull opens buy trades (long position).

  • Bull Market

    A market which is characterized by an increase in prices (quotes).

  • Bullish

    The term “bullish” is used to describe that a person’s, or group’s, outlook on an asset is optimistic (i.e., that the asset will rise in value).

  • Bullish Engulfing Pattern

    A reversal trading pattern that typically occurs after a signifcant downtrend. It occurs when a small bearish candle is engulfed by a large bullish candle. This signals a possible reversal. Ignore the wicks. An even stronger signal occurs when the bullish candle engulfs the bodies of two or three previous candles.

  • Bullish Rectangle

    The rectangle graphical pattern serves to confirm the direction of an existing trend. The bullish rectangle is formed in an uptrend and indicates high probability of continuation of the asset price growth.


  • Cable

    Slang for the GBPUSD currency pair. Due to the rate originally being transmitted by a transatlantic cable, the name stuck.

  • Camarilla Pivots

    Camarilla Pivots is a math-based price action analysis tool that generates potential support and resistance levels, similar to pivot points, using the previous day’s high price, low price and closing price.

  • Canadian Dollar

    The currency of Canada. One of the major currencies traded. Currency code (CAD)

  • Candlestick chart

    This type of chart shows the opening and closing prices and also the highest and the lowest prices during a period. In case the opening price is higher than the closing price the body of the candle is shaded. In contrast, when the closing price is higher than the opening price, the body is not shaded.

  • Carry Trade

    The Carry Trade is a trading strategy where investors/traders sell or borrow assets (such as currencies) with lower yielding interest rate] to fund or buy higher yielding assets.

  • Cash Market

    The market on which a futures or option contracts is based.

  • Central Bank

    Central banks play a key role in the currency markets because of their power over monetary policy. They have a direct influence over money supply, which in turn affects demand and price of the currency. Through the use of different policies, central banks can try to manipulate the markets so that they can keep their currency at specific levels. Some countries and their central banks try to peg their currency to that of another currency or basket of currencies.

  • Channel

    The Channel is a sustainable corridor of fluctuations in the asset price with a constant width.

  • Chart

    Charts are graphical reflections of price changes of a financial instrument over time.

  • Clearing

    The procedure of settling orders between transacting parties.

  • Closed Position

    A position that has been terminated or ended.

  • Cold Storage

    The process of moving your cryptocurrencies “offline”, to prevent them from being stolen by hackers. There are a variety of ways to do this, but most cold storage methods include using paper wallets, USB storage or hardware wallets.

  • Collateral

    Something of value lent to act as a guarantee of performance.

  • Commission

    A transaction fee charged by a broker.

  • Commodity

    A physical substance traded on an exchange. Typical commodities include “energy” (such as crude oil), “metals” (such as gold and silver) and “soft” commodities (foodstuffs such as sugar, wheat and coffee).

  • Commodity Channel Index (CCI)

    The Commodity Channel Index is an indicator developed by Donald Lambert. Despite the original purpose of the indicator to identify new trends, nowadays it is widely used to measure the current price level in relation to its average value.

  • Commodity currencies

    Currencies of the countries, whose exports are mainly based on natural resources. The group may include currencies of both developing and developed countries, such as the Canadian dollar, the Australian dollar, the New Zealand dollar, the Russian ruble and others.

  • Confirmation

    Confirmation means a cryptocurrency transaction has been verified (via the mining process) and added to a block that contains many other transactions.

  • Consolidation

    Consolidation illustrates the lack of a trend in a particular trading range. It frequently occurs after downtrends or uptrends, and can be seen as a stretch of indecision. Consolidation draws to a close when price breaks through existing lines of support and resistance.

  • Consumer Price Index

    An index that measures the change in price of a representative basket of goods and services such as food, energy, housing, clothing, transportation, medical care, entertainment and education. It’s also known as the cost-of-living index.

  • Contract

    An agreement of trade.

  • Contract For Difference (CFD)

    The abbreviation CFD stands for “Contract for Difference”. It is a contract between two parties: the seller pays the buyer the difference between the current value of an underlying asset and its value at the moment the contract is made if the difference is positive, and, vice versa, if the difference is negative, the buyer pays the seller. With CFDs traders can get access to underlying assets without actually owning them.

  • Convergence

    Normally, the contract price of a futures contract is higher than the current price of the underlying asset (normally a commodity). The futures contract price is higher because of the effect of the time value of money. As the expiration date nears, the spread between the spot price and the futures contracts price becomes smaller and smaller. On the delivery date of the contract, the futures and spot prices should be equal.

  • Correlation

    A rate of a specified currency for converting all profits and losses into U.S. dollars.

    In trading, correlation is a measurement of the relationship between two assets.

  • Counter Currency

    The second currency in a currency pair. Also known as the Quote currency.

  • Counterparty

    The customer or bank with which a foreign exchange deal is executed.

  • Cover

    Any action of closing a position.

  • Credit Rating

    Like in any other security, investors look at credit ratings to determine a debt issuer’s ability to repay a loan. In forex trading, credit ratings are mostly referred to sovereign debt, or bonds, issued by governments to finance public projects and services. We usually see credit ratings expressed in letters like AAA, BB+, or D.

  • Credit Risk

    The negative chance that a person who owes currency cannot repay.

  • Cross pair

    An exchange rate between two currencies derived from their corresponding rates with a third currency. As a rule, the term refers to a currency pair which does not contain the US dollar.

  • Crude Oil Inventories

    The amount of crude oil, gasoline, and distillate in a country.

  • Cryptocurrency

    A cryptocurrency is a digital currency that uses a blockchain and relies on cryptography for security.

  • Cryptography

    Cryptography is the practice and science of techniques for securing information through encryption and decryption.

  • Currency Cross Pairs

    Those currency pairs that do not include the US dollar in foreign exchange market trade are referred to as cross currency pairs or crosses.

  • Currency Pair

    A financial instrument representing an operation of buying/selling of one currency for another.


  • Daily chart

    A chart of the market movement, where one day is the time unit.

  • Daily Cut

    Off-The point of the day at which the trading day is over.

  • Dark Cloud Cover

    A bearish reversal pattern that continues the uptrend with a long white body. The next candle opens at a new high then closes below the midpoint of the body of the first candle.

  • Dash

    A type of cryptocurrency based on Bitcoin software but has anonymity features that makes it impossible to trace transactions to an individual. It was created by Evan Duffield in 2014 and was previously known as XCoin (XCO) and Darkcoin.

  • Day trading

    Trading operations which are performed within one day.

  • Deal ticket

    Primary method of recording a transaction.

  • Dealer

    A company or an individual which acts as a leading executor or a counterparty to the transaction.

  • Decentralized

    Decentralized means not controlled by any single entity or institution. Blockchain is an example of something that is decentralized, all full nodes in the network own a copy of the blockchain.

  • DeMarker Indicator

    This indicator was developed as a tool to identify emerging buying and selling opportunities. It demonstrates the phases of the growing probability of price changes which usually correspond to the highs and lows of a price.

  • Depreciation

    Decrease in value of an asset.

  • Derivatives

    A financial contract, the value of which depends on the value of one or more underlying assets. Such underlying assets may include indices, stocks, commodities, currencies and other assets.

  • Descending Trendline

    Descending trendlines are a variety of trendlines, one of the most fundamental tools for technical analysis. Descending trendlines are simply trendlines with a negative slope, indicating falling prices.

  • Descending Triangle

    The Descending triangle graphical price pattern is a chart pattern of an existing trend continuation, which is usually formed in a downtrend and confirms its further direction.

  • Detrended Price Oscillator

    The Detrended Price Oscillator (DPO), as the name indicates, is a technical analysis tool designed to give information about the price of an asset without taking into account existing price trends.

  • Devaluation

    An intentional decrease in a currency’s price due to official announcement.

  • Diamond

    The graphical price pattern “Diamond” is a sign of a subsequent reversal of an existing trend. Traditionally, the pattern is formed in an uptrend.

  • Discretionary Account

    An account in which the account holder gives power to a company or trading body to handle buy/sell transactions. The trading body also has power to choose which currencies to buy or sell.

  • Discretionary Trading

    The downside to the discretionary trading style is that trading decisions are more susceptible to the strong emotional effects of managing financial risk. Also, depending on the time frame, it requires more attention to the market than mechanical or automated trading methods.

  • Disparity Index

    The disparity index can take either a positive or a negative value. A positive value indicates that the asset’s price is rapidly increasing, while a negative value indicates that the price is rapidly decreasing. A value of zero means that the asset’s current price is exactly consistent with its moving average.

  • Divergence

    Divergence is a trading pattern in which the relationship between price action and an oscillator indicator is measured.

  • Doji

    The doji is a type of candlestick and a warning sign of a pending reversal. The open and close are pretty much equal. The length of the upper and lower shadows can vary and the resulting candlestick looks like a cross, inverted cross or plus sign.

  • Double Bottom

    The double bottom graphical price pattern is a sign of a reversal of an existing downtrend. It is considered that the longer the formation of the pattern, the more reliably it indicates a reversal.

  • Double Top

    The double top graphical price pattern is a sign of a reversal of an existing uptrend. It is considered that the longer the formation of the pattern, the more reliably it indicates a reversal.

  • Dow Jones

    The Dow Jones Industrial Average is one of the premier US stock indices, comprising a weighted average of the stock prices of 30 of the largest US companies.

  • Dragonfly Doji

    A doji where it opens and closes at or near its high. The candle ends up with a tall lower shadow and no body. It is usually seen at the bottom of a move. More bullish than a hammer.

  • Drawdown

    Drawdown is a measure of peak-to-trough decline, usually given in percentage form. In trading, drawdown refers to the reduction in your trading account from a trade or a series of trades.


  • Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)

    The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union.

  • Economic calendar

    An economic calendar is a calendar of events provided by brokers and other financial companies through which traders track the events affecting the price movements of assets.

  • Economic Indicators

    An economic indicator is a measurement or data point on the economy that provides a barometer of how the country is doing, which could influence an asset’s value.

  • Economist

    Economists are scientists who study economics. They study market conditions by analyzing economic data that is released daily, and try to explain what is affecting the economy.

  • Employment Change

    This report measures the change of a country’s employment conditions from the previous month.

  • End of Day Order

    A trade order to buy or sell but closes at the end of the trading day. Hence- End of day order. Also known as an EOD.

  • Engulfing Pattern

    A reversal pattern that can be bearish or bullish depending upon whether it appears at the end of an uptrend bearish engulfing pattern or downtrend bullish engulfing pattern. The first candle is characterized by a small body, followed by a candle whose body completely engulfs the previous candle’s body.

  • Entry Order

    An entry order is one that is used to enter a trade at a specified price level. If the currency pair never reaches that price level then the entry order is not executed.

  • Envelopes Indicator

    The Envelopes indicator reflects the overbought or the oversold state of the price, thus allowing to determine the entry and exit points from the market, as well as the moments of the possible trend break-down.

  • Ethereum

    Ethereum is an open source, decentralized platform based on blockchain technology created by VitalikButerin in 2013. It runs smart contracts on a custom-built blockchain that allows developers to create decentralized applications.

  • Ethereum Classic

    Ethereum Classic (ETC) is a type of cryptocurrency that is a continuation of the original Ethereum blockchain following the DAO attack in June 2016.


    The currency pair, formed from Euro and the Japanese yen, shows how many Japanese yen are needed to purchase one Euro.

  • Euro

    A monetary unit used in 19 countries of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Estonia.

  • European Central Bank (ECB)

    The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for Europe’s single currency, the euro. Its main task is to maintain price stability and so preserve the purchasing power of the single currency for the nineteen countries who use the euro common currency.


    The most popular currency pair where Euro, is the base currency traded against the US dollar- the quoted currency.

  • Evening Star

    A bearish reversal pattern that continues an uptrend with a long white body candle followed by a gapped up small body candle, then a down close with the close below the midpoint of the first candle.

  • Existing Home Sales

    Measures the monthly sales of previously-owned single-family houses.

  • Exotic Currency

    Refers to a currency that is not popularly traded or considered one of the eight major currencies.

  • Expiration

    The last day, when the deal on a derivative contract (futures, option, etc.) may be either executed or cancelled.

  • Exponential Moving Average

    The exponential moving average is more complicated, but is calculated by taking the difference between the current price and the previous EMA.


  • Fading

    Fading is a trading technique in which a trader assumes that a rapid upward movement is overdone and takes a short position on a possible reversal.

  • Falling Wedge

    While a Wedge pattern is most often known as a Reversal Pattern, a falling wedge may be either a reversal pattern or a continuation pattern, depending on the prevailing trend factor.

  • Federal Funds Rate

    The federal funds rate is the rate at which depository institutions (banks) lend reserve balances to other banks on an overnight basis.

  • Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)

    The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is responsible for the discount rate and reserve requirements, and the Federal Open Market Committee is responsible for open market operations.

    The Federal Reserve controls the three tools of monetary policy, Open market operations, The discount rate and Reserve requirements.

  • Federal Reserve

    The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. It performs five general functions to promote the effective operation of the U.S. economy and, more generally, the public interest.

  • Fiat

    Fiat money refers to currencies that have minimal or no intrinsic value themselves (not backed by commodities like gold or silver) but are defined as legal tender by the government, such as banknotes and coins.

  • Fibonacci

    Fibonacci arcs are created by first drawing an invisible trendline between two points (usually the high and low in a given period), and then by drawing three curves that intersect this trendline at the key Fibonacci levels of 38.2%, 50% and 61.8%. Transaction decisions are made when the price of the asset crosses through these key levels.

  • Fill Price

    The price at which an order was executed.

  • First In First Out (FIFO)

    Rule in which positions are closed in the order they were originally opened. Also known as FIFO.

  • Fixed Exchange Rate

    An official rate set by monetary officials.

  • Flag

    The Flag refers to short-term graphical price patterns of trend continuation which show that its direction will remain unchanged in the near future. For example, on the daily chart, this pattern is often formed within a week or two.

  • Force Index

    The Force Index is an indicator developed by Alexander Elder to measure the power of price movements interpreting the changes of its components: direction, magnitude and volume. This oscillator fluctuates around the zero level, which is the point of relative balance of forces that move the price.

  • Foreign Exchange (Forex)

    The market where participants have the opportunity to buy, sell, exchange and speculate on currencies. The Forex market is comprised of commercial banks, central banks, investment management companies, hedge- funds, retail forex brokers and investors (traders).

  • Forex Dealer

    A Forex dealer is a financial company authorized to organize foreign currency trading.

  • Forex Resistance

    Price level which acts as a ceiling and caps the rise of the current currency price.

  • Forward transaction

    Forward transaction is an urgent transaction in which the seller and the buyer agree to deliver the sold asset (currency, commodity) on a certain date in the future, while the price of the asset is decided at the moment of making the deal.

  • Fractals Indicator

    Fractal is an indicator, which displays the local highs and lows where the price movement has stopped and reversed. These reversal points are respectively called Peaks and Troughs.

  • FTSE 100

    The premier UK stock index, comprising a weighted average of the 100 largest companies on the London Stock Exchange.

  • Fundamental analysis

    The analysis of economic and political events, which may affect the future direction of prices in financial markets. In the currency market, fundamental analysis is based primarily on macroeconomic events.

  • Fundamentals

    Macroeconomic factors that affect the currency markets.

  • Futures Contract

    An agreement to trade a good at a set price a later date.


  • G10

    The Group of Ten is made up of eleven industrial countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States) which consult and co-operate on economic, monetary and financial matters.

  • G20

    The G20 is made up of 19 countries and the European Union. The 19 countries are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, France, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the UK and the US.

    The G20 aims to unite world leaders around shared economic, political and health challenges. It is a creation of the more select Group of 7, an informal bloc of industrialized democracies.

  • G4

    The G4 nations comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.

  • G7

    The Group of Seven is the world’s leading industrial countries: United States, Germany, Japan, France, United Kingdom, Canada, Italy.

  • G77

    The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing nations, designed to promote its members’ collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.

  • G8

    The Group of Eight leading industrial countries that meet yearly to discuss economic policy, or the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government.

    The G8 is represented by the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

  • Gap

    A break between prices, when the asset is having a big move up or down without trades occurring.

  • Gator Oscillator

    The Gator Oscillator (GO) is a supplement to the Alligator indicator and is used alongside with it, showing the degree of convergence/divergence of its three SMAs and pointing at the Alligator’s hunger or sleep periods (i.e. trending or non-trending periods of price movement).


    GBP stands for British Pound which in this currency pair is traded against US dollar. The currency pair shows how many US dollars are needed to purchase one British Pound.

  • Germany 30

    The premier German stock index, comprising a weighted average of the 30 largest companies on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

  • Gold

    Gold is a commodity that is commonly used in jewelry and variety of electronic products and equipment due to its conductivity, malleability, and durability. Previously, it was used as a standard for monetary exchange as well.

  • Good til cancelled order

    An order to trade at a specific price. It remains open until trader cancels. Hence “Good ’til cancelled.” Also known as GTC.

  • GPU Mining

    GPU mining utilizes one or several GPU (graphics processing unit) cards for mining cryptocurrency. GPUs can process hashes much faster than CPUs, but not as fast as ASIC. GPU mining is typically reserved for mining altcoins due to the high mining difficulty of bitcoin.

  • Gravestone Doji

    A doji candle that opens and closes at or near its low. The candle ends up having a long upper shadow and no body. It is usually seen at the end of an uptrend. This pattern is more bearish than a shooting star.

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

    The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of the United States, regardless of who owns the assets or the nationality of the labor used in producing that output. The growth of output is measured in real terms, meaning increases in output due to inflation have been removed.

  • Growth stock

    Growth stock is what they call a company’s shares which have good profit indicators (higher than average) over a certain period of time (generally a few years) or shares which have a good potential for growth in the near future. The main demarking aspect of this stock’s growth is that its value often rises much faster than that of other stock. However, a rapid decline in the value of such stock is also possible. Furthermore, stockholders for such companies either receive no share dividend whatsoever, or receive only a small dividend since profit is invested in the company’s development, especially when the company is relatively new.


  • Hammer

    Hammer candlesticks form when prices moves significantly lower after the open, but rallies to close well above the intracandle low. The resulting candlestick looks like a square lollipop with a long stick. A hammer indicates that the market may be attempting to find a bottom, and that buyers are strengthening their position.

  • Hanging Man

    Hanging Man candlesticks form when a security moves significantly lower after the open, but rallies to close well above the intracandle low. The resulting candlestick looks like a square lollipop with a long stick. If this candlestick forms during a decline, then it is called a Hammer.

  • Harami

    A two-candle pattern that has a small body candle completely contained within the range of the previous body, and is the opposite color. Coming after a strong trend, this pattern indicates a decrease in momentum and possibly the end of the trend.

  • Hard Fork

    The process of radically changing the protocols on a blockchain where the developers determine that changes must be made to a cryptocurrency that will create incompatibilities between the old and new coin. All the users or nodes must upgrade to the up-to-date version of the software.

  • Hardware Wallet

    Hardware wallets are a form of cryptocurrency cold storage. Resembling the appearance of a USB thumb drive, hardware wallets store your private keys offline from potential breaches. Not all cryptocurrencies are supported by hardware wallets.

  • Hash Function

    A hash function is a mathematical process of taking a message (the input) of arbitrary length and turning it into a fixed length message digest (the output).

  • Head and Shoulders

    The head and shoulders graphical price pattern indicate the end of an existing trend and the further change in the direction of the price movement. It is typically formed in a developed uptrend.

  • Hedge Funds

    Hedge funds are managed portfolios aimed to generate high returns by using aggressive investment strategies.

  • Hedge/hedging

    A strategy to decrease the risk of impact of volatile price fluctuations on trader’s positions. As a rule, hedging involves the sale or purchase at the forward price or the opening of a position on a similar asset. Hedging becomes more popular with the increase of market uncertainty.

  • Housing Starts And Building Permits

    Housing starts and building permits are one of several types of indictors in which way the market is moving.

  • Hyperinflation

    Hyperinflation is a condition in which price levels increase rapidly as the nation’s currency loses its value.


  • Ichimoku Indicator

    The Ichimoku indicator is a comprehensive technical analysis tool introduced in 1968 by Tokyo columnist Goichi Hosoda. The concept of the system was the opportunity to quickly understand the direction of the trend, its dynamics and strength by interpreting all the five components of the system combined with the price dynamics in terms of cyclical character of their interaction caused by the group dynamics of human behavior.

  • ICO

    An initial coin offering or ICO is an unregulated means by which a cryptocurrency venture, typically early stage, can raise money from supporters by issuing tokens.

  • Industrial Production And Capacity

    Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization (IPCU) is a measure of economic activity, released on a monthly basis by the United States Federal Reserve.

    The IPCU report for each month contains data for previous months about the total amount of US industrial production for that month, expressed as a percentage of the gross production for a previous baseline year.

  • Inflation

    A process of a persistent rising of general level of prices of goods and services.

  • Initial Jobless Claims

    The Initial Jobless Claims Report is a method of noticing changes in the employment market. This report is therefore an economic indicator, to some extent. The report provides information on the data from the previous week, ending on the Saturday before. The report each Thursday morning at the Department of Labor.

  • Initial Margin

    The original deposit of collateral needed to enter in a trade.

  • Interbank Rates

    The foreign exchange rates that large international banks quote to other large international banks. Fat chance you’d ever get access to this rate.

  • Interest Rate

    A rate which a borrower pays for holding a lender.

  • International Monetary Fund

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 186 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.

  • Intraday Position

    Open positions that are usually closed by the end of the trading day.

  • Inverse Head and Shoulders

    The inverse head and shoulders graphical price pattern is a sign of a trend reversal. This pattern is usually formed in a developed downtrend.

  • IOTA

    IOTA (MIOTA) refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of an open source distributed ledger founded in 2015 that does not use a blockchain. It uses a new distributed ledger called the Tangle. It offers features such as zero fees, scalability, and fast and secure transactions. It is focused on the Internet of Things.

  • ISM Manufacturing Survey

    The ISM Manufacturing Survey is used as an economic indicator of the market. It is felt that this survey is very important in determining what the market is likely to do, and it is published by the Institute for Supply Management, on a monthly basis. The report will indicate information from the previous month.

  • ISM Non

    Manufacturing Survey-The ISM Non-Manufacturing Survey provides for a detailed look at the economy from a non-manufacturing standpoint. ISM, or Institute for Supply Management, provides this survey each month, based on the previous month.


  • Japanese Yen

    The currency of Japan. One of the major currencies traded. Currency code (JPY).

  • Jobber

    A person who trades for small profits rarely leaving a trade open overnight.

  • JPN225

    A name for the NEKKEI index.


  • Keltner Channel

    Keltner Channels are volatility-based bands set above and below an exponential moving average on a price chart. It was developed by Chester W. Keltner and introduced in his book, How To Make Money in Commodities.

  • Kiwi

    Slang for the New Zealand Dollar. Currency code (NZD)


  • Labour Price Index

    The United States Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) defines a labour price index (their Employment Cost Index) as an index designed to measure changes in the hourly compensation of a fixed “basket of jobs”.

  • Leading Indicators

    Leading indicators are used by traders to predict imminent changes in a market.

  • Ledger

    In accounting, this is the book or computer file for recording and totaling transactions by account. It includes a beginning balance, debits, credits and an ending balance.

  • Leverage

    A credit provided by the broker to his client for making large volume deals with a relatively small amount of capital.

  • Libid/Libor

    LIBID stands for London Interbank Bid Rate. LIBOR stands for London Interbank Offered Rate.

  • Limit order

    An order to buy or sell the given amount of an asset at a specified price or at a better one. For example, if the current price of USD/JPY is 108.24/108.26 (Bid/Ask), the trader can set a buy limit order, for example, at 107.50, if the price falls and the Ask price reaches 107.50, the deal will be made and the corresponding Buy position will be opened.

  • Liquid market

    A market where traders can buy and sell large volumes of assets anytime and with low transaction costs.

  • Liquidity

    The feature of the market (its volume) to provide the execution of large deals with no significant influence on prices.

  • Listed Stocks

    This list contains stocks which are approved for trading on the stock exchanges. Before you get to the stock in the list, the shares go through the admission procedure – listing. Only companies that have been checked for compliance with certain requirements, such as capitalization, volumes of products sold, the number of securities in circulation, and others, are admitted to trading.

  • Litecoin

    Litecoin (LTC) is a type of cryptocurrency that was created by former Google employee Charlie Lee in 2011.

  • Lot

    Standard quantity of financial assets in one transaction.


  • MACD

    The moving average as expressed by the MACD is essentially the average of a price over a certain set amount of time and the MACD enables easy demonstration of the relationship between two exponential examples of the moving average.

  • Manufacturing PMI

    The Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an index of the prevailing direction of economic trends in the manufacturing and service sectors. It consists of a diffusion index that summarizes whether market conditions, as viewed by purchasing managers, are expanding, staying the same, or contracting.

  • Margin

    A certain amount of money required from a client to maintain opened positions.

  • Margin call

    Company’s request for additional deposit of funds into a trading account.

  • Market Cap

    Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a company, market or sector at a point in time commonly used to rank relative size.

  • Market Facilitation Index

    The Market Facilitation Index is created to evaluate the market willingness to move the price. The absolute values of the indicator have no practical use therefore the dynamics of their changes is considered relative to the dynamics of the volume change.

  • Market Maker

    A person who normally quotes both the buy and sell prices.

  • Market order

    The order of the purchase or sale of a financial instrument (e.g. currency) at the current market price.

  • Market Risk

    The chance of changes in market prices.

  • Marubozo

    A candlestick with no shadow extending from the body at either the open or close.

  • Maturity

    The date of settlement for a financial obligation.

  • Maximum Supply

    An approximation of the maximum number of coins or tokens that will ever exist for a cryptocurrency or digital token.

  • Maximum Trading Power

    Can be found by multiplying the maximum leverage ratio by the account value.

  • Mechanical Trading

    A mechanical trading system is often touted as the end-all to Forex trading. Traders choose a system to follow and enter it into a program that will then pick starting and stopping points for trades as well as maintain a position, without requiring a trader be present to control those actions.

  • Mining

    Mining is the process where transactions are verified and added to a blockchain.

  • Ministry Of Finance

    Japan’s Ministry of Finance is part of the Japanese government’s cabinet ministries. Established way back in the 6th century, this ministry has been responsible for managing the country’s exchange rate policy and was in charge of public finance and other monetary affairs.

  • Momentum Indicator

    The Momentum is a technical analysis indicator which reflects the direction of a trend and measures the speed of the price change based on the comparison of the current and previous values.

  • Monero

    Monero (XMR) is a type of cryptocurrency created in 2014 that is focused on privacy and scalability, and runs on platforms like Windows, Mac, Linux and Android. Transactions on Monero are designed to be untraceable to any particular user or real world identity.

  • Monetary Policy

    Monetary policy refers to the process by which a monetary authority controls the money supply in the economy. Usually it is the central bank that carries out the task, adjusting the amount of money available in order to spur economic growth, stabilize prices and exchange rates, and promote employment.

  • Money Flow Index (MFI)

    Money Flow Index (MFI) is a technical indicator developed to evaluate money inflow intensity into an asset by comparing price increases and decreases over a certain period, considering trading volumes.

  • Money Management

    Money management is perhaps the least realized and most important weapon in a trader’s arsenal. A large percentage of Forex traders fail because they don’t have the concept of money management firmly in their grasp. In order to constantly wager hundreds or thousands of dollars, traders have to know the potential of every penny they are risking.

  • Money Supply

    Money supply is the total amount of money in circulation in the economy at a particular time. It is considered an important instrument in controlling inflation.

  • Morning Star

    This is a bullish pattern signifying a potential bottom. A three-candle bullish reversal pattern consisting of three candlesticks:

    • A long-bodied black candle extending the current downtrend
    • A short middle candle that gapped down on the open
    • A long-bodied white candle that gapped up on the open and closed above the midpoint of the body of the first candle.
  • Moving Average Envelopes

    The indicator is used to determine the overbought and the oversold situations.

  • Moving Average Indicator

    Moving Average is a technical analysis tool which shows the average price of an asset price over a certain period of time, smoothens price fluctuations and thus, reflects the direction and strength of a trend.

  • Moving Average of Oscillator

    Moving Average of Oscillator (OsMA) is a technical analysis tool which reflects the difference between the oscillator (like MACD) and its moving average (the signal line).



    The North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA, is a three-country accord negotiated by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States that entered into force in January 1994.

    NAFTA’s terms, which were implemented gradually through January 2008, provided for the elimination of most tariffs on products traded among the three countries.

  • NAS100

    An abbreviation for the NASDAQ 100 index.

  • National Futures Association (NFA)

    The National Futures Association (NFA) watches over the commodities and futures markets in the United States.

  • Nationwide Consumer Confidence

    Consumer confidence is an economic indicator that measures the degree of optimism that consumers feel about the overall state of the economy and their personal financial situation. When consumer confidence is high, consumers make more purchases.

  • NEO

    NEO refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of a China’s first open source blockchain that was founded in 2014 by Da Hongfei. It is similar to Ethereum in its ability to execute smart contracts or Dapps but has some technical differences such as coding language compatibility.

  • Net Position

    The amount of currency bought or sold that hasn’t been offset by opposite transactions.

  • New Home Sales

    New Home Sales, or New Residential Sales, is an economic indicator released by the US Census Bureau in report form on a monthly basis. The New Home Sales report offers data on new homes sold, expressed in thousands of homes and broken down by geographic region of the country.

  • Node

    A computer that has a full copy of the blockchain and is part of the decentralized network.

  • Nonfarm Payroll Employment

    An estimate of the number of payroll jobs at all nonfarm business establishments and government agencies. Information is also provided on the unemployment rate, average number of hours worked per week, and average hourly and weekly earnings. Nonfarm Payroll numbers are included in the monthly Employment Situation report.


  • OCO order

    OCO order is a combination of two pending orders set to open a position at prices different from the current market price. Execution of one of the two orders brings to an automatic removal of the remaining one.

  • Offer

    The suggested price at which a currency can be bought (“Ask” price).

  • Oil

    Oil is a substance that is used for power and energy in order to run all the machines that we humans use. It is normally referred to as petroleum. It is important for consumers because they depend on oil for everyday activities. Naturally, companies also need oil to run their machinery and keep up production.

  • On-Balance Volume (OBV)

    On-Balance Volume is a cumulative indicator, based on the index of trade volumes, and reflecting the relation between the volume of deals and asset price movements.

  • Open position

    Any transaction that has not been closed by a corresponding opposite transaction.

  • Option

    A derivative which gives the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a product at a specific price before a specified date.

  • Order

    Any instruction by a client on performing trading operations.

  • Out-of-the-money Option

    An Out-of-the-money Option is when, during trading, the option is worth less than was paid for it. For example, you predict that the price of an asset will rise, but it falls. Your forecast doesn’t come true and you lose money on the option. The option can fluctuate in and out of the money: i.e. be profit making (in-the-money) at one point and loss making (out-of-the-money) at another before the option expires.

  • Over The Counter (OTC)

    Used to describe any transaction that is not conducted via an exchange.


  • Pair

    A financial instrument, which shows the value of one currency unit in terms of another.

  • Parabolic Indicator

    Parabolic indicator was developed to confirm or reject trend direction, to determine the emergence of the correction phase or sideways movement, as well as to determine possible closing points for positions. The underlying principle of the indicator can be described by the phrase “stop and reverse” (SAR).

  • Parabolic SAR

    The parabolic SAR (short for Stop And Reverse) is a very complicated predictive algorithm designed to establish a trailing stop-loss level for asset markets that follow strong bullish or bearish trends. The algorithm was introduced by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in his 1978 book.

  • Parity

    Parity occurs in the Forex market when two currencies are of equal value. The exchange rate is equal to 1.

  • PCE Price Index

    Personal Consumption Expenditure, or PCE, is an inflation index similar to the Consumer Price Index. In the United States, it is released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the Department of Commerce and it is the preferred gauge of inflation by the Federal Reserve.

  • Pending Home Sales

    The measurement of signed real estate contracts for existing co-ops, condos, and single-family homes.

  • Pennant

    Pennant refers to short-term graphical price patterns of trend continuation, indicating that its direction will be unchanged in the near future. For example, on the daily chart the pattern is usually formed within a week or two.

  • People’s Bank Of China

    The People’s Bank of China (PBOC)is the monetary policy and financial institution regulator for the People’s Republic of China.

  • Performance Of Manufacturing Index

    The Performance of Manufacturing Index is a monthly survey of the manufacturing sector providing an early indicator of activity levels.  It is produced by Business NZ, and sponsored by BNZ, who also provide expert commentary.

  • Personal Consumption Expenditures

    Money spent for products and services meant for individual consumption.

  • Personal Income And Spending

    Personal Income and Spending, also known as Personal Income and Consumption, is a report generated by the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analysis on consumer spending habits and income levels in the US.

  • Petrodollars

    All oil purchases from OPEC must be paid in U.S. dollars. If Mexico wants to buy oil, it has to sell its local currency and buy U.S. dollars, then use those dollars to buy oil from OPEC. Any country that buys oil from OPEC must do so using petrodollars. Petrodollars are also known as petrocurrency.

  • Piercing Line

    A bullish two candle reversal pattern. During a downtrend:

    • The first candle is a long bear candle followed by a long bull candle.
    • The bull candle opens lower than the bear’s low but closes more than halfway above the middle of the bear candle’s body.

    This is a warning sign for sellers since a reversal to the upside might soon occur.

  • Pivot Points

    Pivot points are a fundamental term used in technical analysis. A pivot point represents the point at which the overall trend in price changes.

  • Point or pip

    The smallest possible change of quotation. As a rule, pip is equal to 0.0001 or 0.00001 for the majority of currency pairs, which are quoted to the fourth or fifth decimal point after the comma, but for JPY pairs it is 0.01 or 0.001 and is quoted to the second or third decimal point. For other financial instruments, the pip is usually equal from 0.1 to 0.001.

  • Portfolio Trading

    The simultaneous purchase or sale of a basket of securities, combined in a portfolio based on some criteria.

  • Position

    The net total exposure in a given currency. A position can be either flat or square (no exposure), long (more currency bought than sold), or short (more currency sold than bought).

  • Position Trading

    A position trader can be compared to a squatter who sets up a tent in the middle of a crowded shopping mall, letting people pass by and stare but remaining relatively untouched by them until the authorities come in to shoo him off.

  • Premium

    Amount in which the forward price has exceeded the current market price.

  • Presale

    A ICO presale, or pre-sale, also known as Pre-ICO is a token sale event that takes place before an ICO is made available to the general public to participate.

  • Price Action

    Price action refers to a security’s price movement. It can be represented in terms of charts, graphs, and tables.

  • Private Key

    A private key is an encrypted series of letters and numbers that allows someone to access their cryptocurrency and spend or withdraw it in a transaction. It is like your bank account number.

  • Producer Price Index

    The Producer Price Index, or PPI, is a monthly report released by the Bureau of Labor and Statistics detailing the purchasing price of various consumer goods.

  • Profit

    A positive financial result from trading operations.

  • Profit/Loss

    The actual gain or loss due to transactions and market activities.

  • Proof of Stake (PoS)

    Proof of Stake (PoS) is an algorithm by which a cryptocurrency’s blockchain aims to achieve distributed consensus.

  • Proof of Work (PoW)

    Proof of Work (PoW) is an algorithm that rewards the first person that solves a computational problem (mining) to achieve distributed consensus.

  • Psychology

    Psychology in Forex is almost as important as the money that traders invest in the market. Without the proper mind-set, trading can be intimidating and confusing. Those who lose the most money in the market are those who don’t grasp this fundamental truth. Thought is reality here. Emotions have to be faced down and controlled in order to become a successful Forex trader.

  • Public Key

    The public key is a cryptographic key which is used to encrypt a message. Unlike a private key, which is kept entirely secret, a public key is known to everyone.

  • Pullback

    The tendency of a trending market to retrace a portion of the gains before continuing in the same direction.

  • Pump

    When a person or group with lots of money buy a bunch of coins at market value, driving the price of the coins up.

  • Purchasing Managers Index

    The Purchasing Manager Index (PMI) assesses the business conditions of the manufacturing and service sectors of a country. The PMI is used to measure the change in the spending of business firms.

  • Purchasing Power Parity

    The Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is a theory that states that the foreign exchange rate between two countries should be equal to the ratio between their respective prices of a fixed basket of goods. When this holds true, the exchange rate is said to be in equilibrium.

  • Put Option

    A product which gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to sell it at a specified price.


  • Quantitative Analysis

    The trading concept of Quantitative Analysis involves the process of applying a business or financial technique that seeks to understand behavior within the currency market by applying a complex system of mathematical and statistical modeling, along with measuring of market values and research.

  • Quarterly CFD’s

    A type of future with expiry dates every three months (once per quarter).

  • Quote

    Informs every market individual of market prices.

  • Quoted currency

    The second currency in a currency pair is called a quoted currency.


  • Rally

    An increase of price after a period of decline.

  • Range

    The difference of the highest and lowest price in a given trading period.

  • Rate

    The value of one currency in terms of another.

  • Raw Materials Price Index (RMPI)

    The Raw Materials Price Index (RMPI) is one such tool that helps explain the relative change in the price of raw materials purchased by Canadian manufacturers.

  • Recession

    The newspaper definition of a recession is when the GDP rate declines by 2 or more consecutive quarters. The problem with this definition is that it makes it more difficult to say whether the economy is in a recession or not. This definition does not take into account other macroeconomic factors like unemployment.

  • Rectangles

    A Rectangle is a method of pattern trading based on a continuation pattern. – The rectangle pattern generally reflects a consolidation period, usually of four to six weeks duration. This pattern regularly features well defined support and resistance levels, which are to be distinguished by horizontal lines.

  • Relative Strength Index (RSI)

    Relative Strength Index was developed to assess the strength or, on the contrary, the weakness of a trend, measure the speed of the price change by comparing its increases and decreases on the basis of closing prices.

  • Relative Vigor Index

    Relative Vigor Index was developed to determine the direction of the prevailing trend. The behavior of the indicator is based on a simple idea that closing prices are significantly higher than opening prices in the bullish market and lower in the bearish market.

  • Reserve Bank

    The Reserve Bank main responsibility is monetary policy. Policy decisions are made by the Reserve Bank Board, with the objective of achieving low and stable inflation over the medium term.

  • Resistance Level

    Resistance is one of the key concepts of technical analysis. Resistance is defined as a price level at which the activity of asset sellers is quite significant to prevent the further purchase and increase in asset price.

  • Retail customer

    Any party to a forex trade who is not an eligible contract participant as defined under the Commodity Exchange Act. This includes individuals with assets of less than $10 million and most small businesses.

  • Retail Sales

    An estimate of the total sales of goods by all retail establishments in the U.S. (Sales of services are not included) for month prior to the release of the report.

  • Ripple

    Ripple (XRP) refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of an open-source payment platform where the cryptocurrency (XRP) can be transferred.

  • Rising Wedge

    A rising wedge is a common chart pattern in technical analysis. The rising wedge is formed by drawing two ascending trendlines, one representing high prices and one representing low prices for an asset. The slope of the trendline representing the highs is lower than the slope of the trendline representing the lows, indicating that low prices are increasing more rapidly than high prices are. The resulting shape forms a gradually narrowing wedge, giving this pattern its name.

  • Risk management

    The identification and assessment of the risk level, as well as taking actions to eliminate the risk to a new desired level and monitoring that new risk level.

  • Rollover

    The process of extending the settlement date on an open position by rolling it over to the next settlement date.

  • Rollover Fee

    A swap/rollover fee is charged when you keep a position open overnight.


  • Safe Haven

    These are Assets that are considered relatively low-risk investments and are usually bought up in times of uncertainty. They are typically low-paying but are deemed stable by market participants.

  • Safe Haven Currencies

    Safe haven currencies are currencies that are expected to retain or increase in value when it seems like the world is coming to an end (geopolitical stress).

  • Saucer

    The saucer is a long-term figure of technical analysis, signifying a slow change in the tendency of price to fall on a growth trend. Usually the saucer has an arcuate bottom, which is clearly seen on the weekly charts. The period of formation of this figure can last more than a year.

  • Scrypt

    Scrypt is a type of mining algorithm used by major cryptocurrencies such as litecoin and novacoin. It has one major advantage over other algorithms such as SHA-256 in that it’s quicker and easier to use. It doesn’t use up as much computer processing, so individual miners can more readily process blocks of data with it.

  • Security deposit

    The amount of money needed to open or maintain a position. Also known as ‘margin’.

  • Settlement

    The business process whereby securities are delivered to the buyer in exchange for payment to the seller, which usually takes place one to three days after the deal.

  • Sharpe Ratio

    The Sharpe ratio describes how much excess return you receive for the added volatility that you tolerate for holding on to a risky asset.

  • Shooting Star

    A single candle pattern that can appear in an uptrend. It opens higher, trades much higher, then closes near its open. It looks just like the Inverted Hammer except that it is bearish. A shooting star can mark a top but is often retested.

  • Short Position

    A position in which the base currency is sold. It is beneficial when a price declines.

  • Slippage

    The difference between the expected fill price and the actual fill price. High probably of slippage may occur in highly volatile markets.

  • SNB

    Swiss National Bank, the central bank of Switzerland.

  • Sovereign Debt

    Sovereign debt is a financial liability of a national government. Sovereign debt usually refers to bonds which are denominated in foreign currencies.

  • Speculating

    In the financial world, speculating can be described as the act of making an investment in a financial asset, hoping to make a profit when the asset over time. In layman’s terms, a speculator will aim to “buy low and sell high.

  • Spinning Top

    Candlesticks that have small bodies with upper and lower shadows that exceed the length of the body. A very good reversal signal and can be any color.

  • Spot market

    A market, where trades are conducted with instant execution. Also note, that in the spot market the proprietary rights are transferred from the seller to the buyer at the moment of making a deal, and the final settlements may take up to two working days.

  • Spot price

    The current price in the spot market.

  • Spread

    The difference between the Bid and Ask prices. In the quotes flow, received by the client in the trading terminal, both prices are presented. The current spread for a currency pair or an asset is an important part of liquidity of that financial instrument.

  • Stagflation

    As the name suggests, stagflation is a period in time when there is a combination of high inflation and economic stagnation.

  • Stamp Duty

    A U.K. tax on the transfer of shares and securities. One major benefit of spread betting is that it is not liable to stamp duty (although tax laws can change).

  • Standard & Poor’s

    Standard & Poor’s (S&P) is a leading index provider and data source of independent credit ratings.

  • Sterling

    Slang term for the British pound (GBP).

  • Stochastic Oscillator

    The Stochastic indicator determines the position of the current closing price in the price range of the last few periods, based on the idea that the price tends to the upper bound of fluctuations in an uptrend and to the lower bound- in a downtrend.

  • Stock

    Investments can be attracted in different ways. One of them is the issue of share, which allows investors to become shareholders of the company and have the right, thereby, to receive dividends from the company’s profit. Shares are not only a tool for receiving dividends, but on the stock market, investors can earn money due to periodic fluctuations in the price of these share.

  • Stop Loss order

    Stop loss order is designed to limit possible losses and is set at a price worse than the price of position opening or the price of pending order execution.

  • Strategists

    Strategists are traders who anticipate upcoming reports and their impact on price action. They usually trade the news and come up with trade setups based on whether they think the actual figures will come in worse or better than expected. Because of that, strategists are a good source of trade ideas, especially for short-term trades.

  • Strike price

    The exchange rate at which the buyer of a call has the right to purchase a specific currency pair or at which the buyer of a put has the right to sell a specific currency pair. Also known as the ‘exercise price’.

  • Supply And Demand

    Supply refers to the amount of an asset that is available while demand is the quantity of an asset that people are willing to buy.

  • Support Level

    Support is one of the key concepts of technical analysis. Support is defined as a price level at which the activity of asset buyers is quite significant to prevent the further sale and decrease in its price.

  • Swap

    The operation of crediting or debiting acertain amount of money from a client’s account when rolling the position over to the next value date (“to the next day”). The size of swap is proportional to the volume of the position and depends on the current difference of interest rates of base and quoted currencies (or assets) in the interbank lending market.

  • Swing Trading

    Traders who can react quickly to market changes, including at-home and day traders, benefit from swing trading, which is a trade strategy that involves holding a position for longer than a day.

  • Swiss Francs

    The currency of Switzerland. One of the major currencies traded.

  • Symmetric Triangle

    The Symmetric triangle graphical price pattern is a chart pattern of an existing trend continuation, which may be formed both in an uptrend and in a downtrend, and serves to confirm its further directions.

  • Symmetrical Triangle

    A Symmetrical Triangle is a method of pattern trading based on a continuation pattern. Continuation patterns also include Ascending Triangles, Descending Triangles, Wedges, Flags, Rectangles and Pennants and are essentially technical patterns that are expected to lead to the continuation of an existing trend. Continuation patterns are considered a powerful trading tool as they usually result in extremely low risk trading opportunities and spectacular returns.


  • Take Profit order

    Take Profit is designed to close a position once the targeted profit level has been reached by setting it at a price better than the price of position opening or the price of pending order execution.

  • Technical analysis

    Technical analysis is used to forecast future changes in financial and commodity markets based on the history of price changes, i.e. past price movements.

  • Technical Indicators

    Technical indicators are the inseparable part of technical analysis. Their aim is to predict the direction of the market to help a trader. There is a great number of indicators used by traders for determining the market movement. Some traders prefer to use those indicators which have proved to be efficient in trading in the past, while others try using new indicators. Bill Williams’ indicators, Oscillators, Trend and Volume indicators may serve as examples.

  • Tick

    The smallest movement possible in the price of a financial instrument.

  • Trade Balance

    Trade balance measures the ratio of exports to imports for a given country’s economy. If exports are higher than imports (a trade surplus), the trade balance will be positive. If imports are higher than exports (a trade deficit), the trade balance will be negative.

  • Trailing Stop

    Trailing Stop mode maintains the mechanism of automatic shift of a linked Stop Loss order according to the following rule: if the profit of a position becomes higher than the set fixed distance, the Stop Loss order moves to the level on which the difference between the current market price and order price is equal to this distance.

  • Transaction costs

    The costs, incurred by a trader when buying or selling currencies or commodities, which include the commission fee of a broker.

  • Transaction date

    The date of the deal.

  • Treasury Bills

    Short-term obligations of a Government issued for periods of one year or less. Treasury bills do not carry a rate of interest, but are issued at a discount on the par value. Treasury bills are repaid at par on the due date.

  • Treasury Bonds

    Government obligations with maturities of ten years or more.

  • Treasury Notes

    Government obligations with maturities more than one year, but less than ten years.

  • Trend Continuation Patterns

    Trend continuation patterns (graphical models, patterns) are formed during the pause in the current market trends, and mark the movement continuation rather than its reversal.

  • Trend line

    The lines connecting a series of extreme upper or extreme lower points on a price chart.

  • Trend Reversal Patterns

    The Trend Reversal patterns are graphical models (patterns), which are formed after the price level reaches its high in the current trend and indicate high probability of trend reversal.

  • Triple Bottom

    The Triple bottom graphical price pattern is usually formed in a downtrend and serves as a sign of its further reversal. This pattern is considered to be more significant than the “double bottom”.

  • Triple Top

    The Triple top graphical price pattern is usually formed in an uptrend anticipating its further reversal and decrease in prices. This pattern is considered to be more significant than the “double top”.

  • Turnover

    Total value of money of all executed transactions in a given time period.


  • Underlying Price

    The spot price of the underlying asset of a derivative.

  • Unemployment Rate

    The unemployment rate is basically the percentage of the people in the work force without jobs but is able and willing to work. It is measured by getting the ratio of unemployed people who are willing and able to work versus the total number of people in the work force.

  • Unrealized P/L

    Theoretical profit or loss of an open position determined by current market prices.

  • US Oil

    A name for WTI Crude Oil.

  • US30

    A name for the Dow Jones index.


    The currency pair, formed from the US dollar and the Canadian dollar, indicates how many Canadian dollars are needed to purchase one US dollar.


    The US dollar and the Swiss franc currency pair, where the US dollar is the base currency and the Swiss franc is the quoted currency.


    The US dollar and the Japanese yen currency pair. In this currency pair the US dollar is the base currency while the Japanese yen is the quoted one.

  • USDX

    A measure of the value of the U.S. dollar relative to majority of its most significant trading partners. This index is similar to other trade-weighted indexes, which also use exchange rates from the same major currencies.


  • Value date

    Date on which counterparties must deliver funds, that is when the currency bought is received and the currency sold is paid.

  • Volatility

    A measure of risk, usually a statistical indicator, which evaluates the degree of the price fluctuation of an asset.

  • Volume Indicator

    Volume is a technical analysis indicator, which reflects investors’ trading activity for a certain period of time.

  • Volume Indicators

    The Volume of deals characterizes the activity of market participants involved in asset trading, its strength and intensity.


  • Wallet

    A way of storing your cryptocurrency.

  • Wedge

    The wedge refers to short-term graphical price patterns of trend continuation indicating that its direction will remain unchanged in the near future. For example, on the daily chart the pattern is often formed within a week or two.

  • Whitelist

    Whitelist is a list of registered and approved participants that are given exclusive access to contribute to an initial coin offering (ICO) or a presale.

  • Whitepaper

    A whitepaper is an informational document that generally informs readers on the philosophy, objectives and technology of a project or initiative.

  • Williams Percent Range Indicator

    The objective of the indicator is to determine the overbought or oversold conditions of the asset and the possible reversal points.

  • World Bank

    The World Bank is a group of international financial organizations around the globe aimed provide assistance to its 187 member countries. Its basic goal is to combat poverty by providing member countries with sound financial advice, loans (such as low or no interest loans), and research.


  • XAG

    Symbol for Silver Index.

  • XAU

    Symbol for Gold Index.

  • XBT

    Symbol for Bitcoin cryptocurrency.

  • XBY

    Symbol for Xtrabytes cryptocurrency.

  • Xenocurrency

    A currency that trades in markets outside of its domestic borders. “Xeno” is a prefix meaning strange or foreign.

  • XLM

    Symbol for Stellar Lumens cryptocurrency.

  • XMR

    Symbol for Monero cryptocurrency.

  • XPD

    Symbol for Palladium Metal.

  • XPT

    Symbol for Platinum Precious Metal.

  • XRB

    Symbol for RaiBlocks cryptocurrency. Currently NANO

  • XRP

    Symbol for Ripple cryptocurrency.

  • XVG

    Symbol for Verge cryptocurrency.


  • Yard

    Slang for one billion dollars. Bill Gates has a lot of these.

  • Yen

    The monetary unit of Japan.

  • Yield

    The percentage return from an investment.

  • YOY

    Abbreviation for year over year.

  • Yuan

    The yuan is the base unit of currency in China. The renminbi is the name of the currency in China, where the Yuan is the base unit.


  • ZEW Economic Expectations

    A leading indicator of economic health based on surveyed institutional investors and analysts. The survey asks respondents to rate the 6-month economic outlook for the nation. A reading above 0.0 indicates optimism while a reading below 0.0 implies pessimism.

  • ZEW Survey

    The ZEW Indicator of Economic Sentiment is a monthly survey of economists and analysts. They assess the economic conditions of Germany as well as several regions and nations. Ad. If the resulting index is greater than zero, sentiment is positive.

  • ZMW

    Symbol for Zambia cryptocurrency.